Solar Telescopes

Solar Telescopes

Solar Telescopes Around the World

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(NoRH) is a radio telescope dedicated to observe the Sun. "Helio" means the Sun, "graph" means an imaging telescope. It consists of 84 parabolic antennas with 80 cm diameter, sitting on lines of 490 m long in the east/west and of 220 m long in the north/south. Its construction took 2 years and cost 1.8 billion yen. The first observation was in April, 1992 and the daily 8-hours observation has been done since June, 1992. Frequency 17GHz (Right and left circular polarization), 34GHz (only intensity) Field of view Solar full disk Spatial resolution 10 arcsec (17GHz), 5 arcsec (34GHz) Temporal resolution 0.1 sec (Event), 1 sec (Steady) As the NoRH is a radio interferometer, original data are sets of correlation values of all the combination of antennas. They correspond to the spatial Fourier components of the brightness distribution of the solar disk. In most cases, it is necessary to synthesize images from the original raw data. To maximize the data use, we prepare images, indices and other related materials routinely and put them on our Web page. This Web page is to help the scientists in the world to look for interesting phenomena detected by the NoRH and to start the actual analysis using the original data set. Software for image synthesis and analyses are prepared. Image synthesis and analyses can be done remotely through the Internet. This data and images can also be used for science education. We are glad if our images are of any help in education at schools, universities, and public.
Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) is a radio telescope dedicated to observe the Sun. "Helio" means the Sun, "graph" means an imaging telescope. It consists of 84 parabolic antennas with 80 cm diameter, sitting on lines of 490 m long in the east/west and of 220 m long in the north/south. Its construction took 2 years and cost 1.8 billion yen. The first observation was in April, 1992 and the daily 8-hours observation has been done since June, 1992. Frequency 17GHz (Right and left circular polarization), 34GHz (only intensity) Field of view Solar full disk Spatial resolution 10 arcsec (17GHz), 5 arcsec (34GHz) Temporal resolution 0.1 sec (Event), 1 sec (Steady) As the NoRH is a radio interferometer, original data are sets of correlation values of all the combination of antennas. They correspond to the spatial Fourier components of the brightness distribution of the solar disk. In most cases, it is necessary to synthesize images from the original raw data. To maximize the data use, we prepare images, indices and other related materials routinely and put them on our Web page. This Web page is to help the scientists in the world to look for interesting phenomena detected by the NoRH and to start the actual analysis using the original data set. Software for image synthesis and analyses are prepared. Image synthesis and analyses can be done remotely through the Internet. This data and images can also be used for science education. We are glad if our images are of any help in education at schools, universities, and public.
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Just five years after George Ellery Hale founded the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory with a grant from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, designs for a long-focal-length tower telescope were completed. In 1908, Hale discovered magnetic fields in sunspots (using the 60-foot solar tower built in 1907) by applying the principle of Zeeman splitting, where a spectral line will usually be split up into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. This was a discovery of great import. In order to study the Zeeman splitting of sunspots more precisely, Hale needed a telescope with a larger image scale and a spectrograph with a greater linear dispersion than the 60-foot could provide. Because of this, funds were provided by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and in 1909, the construction of the 150-foot solar tower was begun.
Mt. Wilson Just five years after George Ellery Hale founded the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory with a grant from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, designs for a long-focal-length tower telescope were completed. In 1908, Hale discovered magnetic fields in sunspots (using the 60-foot solar tower built in 1907) by applying the principle of Zeeman splitting, where a spectral line will usually be split up into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. This was a discovery of great import. In order to study the Zeeman splitting of sunspots more precisely, Hale needed a telescope with a larger image scale and a spectrograph with a greater linear dispersion than the 60-foot could provide. Because of this, funds were provided by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and in 1909, the construction of the 150-foot solar tower was begun.
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The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) exploits the excellent climatic conditions of Big Bear Lake to study the Sun, source of life on Earth. The observatory is located in the middle of Big Bear Lake to reduce the image distortion which usually occurs when the Sun heats the ground and produces convection in the air just above the ground. Turbulent motions in the air near the observatory are also reduced by the smooth flow of the wind across the lake instead of the turbulent flow that occurs over mountain peaks and forests. These conditions, combined with the usually cloudless skies over Big Bear Lake and the clarity of the air at 2,000 meters (6,750 feet) elevation, make the observatory a premier site for solar observations. The observatory was built by the California Institute of Technology in 1969. Management of the observatory, and an array of solar radio telescopes at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) in Owens Valley, California, was transferred to the New Jersey Institute of Technology on July 1, 1997. Funding for the operation of the observatory is from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States Air Force, the United States Navy and other agencies.
BBSO The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) exploits the excellent climatic conditions of Big Bear Lake to study the Sun, source of life on Earth. The observatory is located in the middle of Big Bear Lake to reduce the image distortion which usually occurs when the Sun heats the ground and produces convection in the air just above the ground. Turbulent motions in the air near the observatory are also reduced by the smooth flow of the wind across the lake instead of the turbulent flow that occurs over mountain peaks and forests. These conditions, combined with the usually cloudless skies over Big Bear Lake and the clarity of the air at 2,000 meters (6,750 feet) elevation, make the observatory a premier site for solar observations. The observatory was built by the California Institute of Technology in 1969. Management of the observatory, and an array of solar radio telescopes at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) in Owens Valley, California, was transferred to the New Jersey Institute of Technology on July 1, 1997. Funding for the operation of the observatory is from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States Air Force, the United States Navy and other agencies.
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